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july-dec-2014

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July - December 2014
Volume 11 | Issue 2

This journal has been online since Saturday, April 05, 2013

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
 
  DISTRIBUTION OF ABO, Rh D BLOOD GROUPS AND HAEMOGLOBIN PHENOTYPES AMONG ANTENATAL CLINIC ATTENDEES IN FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE NGURU, NIGERIA

1BABADOKO AA, TAKAI IU, KAWUWA MB

Background: Blood groups antigens and haemoglobin genotypes are genetically controlled and are specific to an individual. Blood groups remain unchanged throughout life and are important to avoid fatal blood transfusion reactions. Haemoglobin phenotypes are necessary for the laboratory detection of most common clinically important haemoglobin variants as it determines the transfusion demand which is necessary for setting up and planning of a blood transfusion unit. Objectives: To determine the distribution of ABO, Rh D blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes in pregnant women attending antenatal care at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Nguru, Yobe state, North-Eastern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of 5,519 records of pregnant women who were sequentially booked in antenatal care clinic at the permanent site of FMC Nguru, over a 2 year period, from January 2009 to December 2010. The ABO and Rh D blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoretic pattern were obtained from the haematology antenatal record register and analyzed. Results: Overall, a total of 5474 and 5508 records were analyzed for ABO/Rh D blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoretic pattern respectively. The mean age of the study subjects was 24.6 ± 5.84 years and a mean packed cell volume of 32.6 ±4.51%. Blood group O was commonest accounting for 49.2% followed by blood group B (26.0%) and A (21.3%) while blood group AB had the lowest distribution of 3.5% (O>B>A>AB). Rhesus Rh D positivity (RhD/RhDd) rate was 95.4% while RhD negativity (Rhdd) accounted for 4.6%. Five haemoglobin phenotypes (electrophoretic pattern) were recorded in the order of HbAA (76.12%) > HbAS (23.4%) > HbAC (0.27%) > HbSS (0.16%) > HbSC (0.05%). HbAA and HbAS occurred more frequently than other haemoglobin variants. Conclusion: Although our study included only pregnant women, the finding of this study is consistent with the previously published data in Nigeria. This study will serve as a baseline data for FMC Nguru to determine and formulate an effective and efficient blood transfusion services amongst pregnant women and also it will serve as a guide for premarital counselling in this community.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 

DETERMINATION OF GROWTH HORMONE, TESTOSTERONE AND ESTRADIOL IN CORD BLOOD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL

GALI RM, UDOH AE, USORO CAO, CHAMA CM, BASSEY IE, MAMZA YP

Background: Cord blood provides data on problems of neonates including factors that may serve as indicators of future disorders. Objectives: To determine the values of growth hormone, testosterone and estradiol using cord blood. Methods: Cross-sectional study using Cord blood of babies born in the labour ward of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) Borno State, Nigeria. The samples were analyzed in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Chemical Pathology Unit, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for the analysis of growth hormone, testosterone and estradiol was used. Results: Two hundred and eighty nine babies comprising 152 (52.8%) males and 137 (47.2%) females cord blood were analyzed. Nineteen were preterm and 270 were full term babies. The mean serum levels of estradiol and testosterone in both male and female babies were similar (2.47±0.31ng/ml male, 2.54±0.29ng/ml female and 1.73±0.60ng/ml male, 1.62± 0.64ng/ml female) respectively. The mean serum level of growth hormone in male was higher than that of female but not statistically significant (50.92±34.42ng/ml male and 45.95±30.87ng/ml). Conclusion: Cord blood Growth Hormone, testosterone and estradiol of male and female babies do not differ significantly at birth.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  BARRIERS TO UTILIZATION OF EYE CARE SERVICES IN RURAL COMMUNITIES IN EDO STATE, NIGERIA  

EBEIGBE JA, OVENSERI-OGBOMO GO

Background: Visual impairment and blindness due to ocular diseases are significant public health problems in developing countries, including Nigeria. Evidence suggests that poor uptake
of available eye care services by potential beneficiaries is a major barrier to attaining universal access to eye care services. Objectives: To determine the factors that prevents utilization of eye care services in rural communities. Methods: This was a cross- sectional community based survey. Three rural communities in three different Local Government Areas- Obe, Evboneka and Orior of Edo State were selected by convenient sampling. One hundred subjects were selected by systematic random sampling from each of the three villages visited. This made a sample size of 300. There were 132 (44%) males and 168 (56%) females. The age range was between 40 to 75 years, with a mean age of 55.2 ± 2.1 years. Results: The barriers identified were felt need for eye care services (33.3%), cost of treatment (26.7%), the need for escort (8.3%). and social engagement/belief (8.3%). Sixty-eight per cent of the sample population had never had their eyes examined in a hospital before. Of the thirty-two per cent of those who had gone to the hospital for eye care services, 21% were females. This resulted in a statistically significant difference in gender utilization of eye care services ( p<0.0001). There was also a significant association between the level of education and health care seeking behaviour of the sample population (p = 0.008). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ignorance, poverty and gender are major barriers to utilization of eye care services by communities. Health promotion programmes need to incorporate community based health education and explore ways of making eye care services affordable in rural areas. Also, enlightenment programmes and workshops targeted at men should be carried out to educate and encourage better eye care seeking behaviour among them.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  TUBERCULIN SKIN TEST AND SERUM ALBUMIN AMONG SPUTUM SMEAR POSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA  

GWALABE SA, YUSUPH H, MUSTAPHA SK, IGE OM, GONI BW, BAKKI B, TAHIR A

Background:tuberculin, a Purified Protein Derivative (PPD), is introduced into intradermal tissues using a small-gauge needle. The amount of induration is measured in mm after 48-72 hours. In the setting of malnutrition, DTH responses are markedly depressed. 8 The significance of these effects depends on previous nutritional status of the individual, and the nature and duration of infection. 9 Malnutrition is observed frequently in patients with PTB 10 and it has a profound effect on cellular immune function. It is an important risk factor for TB, given that CMI is the key host defence against TB. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the intensity of Mantoux responses and serum albumin in HIV-negative sputum smear positive PTB patients in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  TRADITIONAL MENTAL HEALTH PRACTITIONERS IN GOMBE: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE  

YERIMA MM, WAKIL MA, IBRAHIM AW

Background: There are many studies on the knowledge of, attitude towards and practices of mental health workers towards mental illness in Nigeria. However, there are few studies on the knowledge of, attitude towards and practices of traditional mental health practitioners towards mental illness. Objectives: The present study investigated the knowledge of, attitude and practices of traditional mental health practitioners towards mental illness. Methods: We recruited four traditional mental health practitioners (in a traditional mental healing house) into
the study, and used focus-group discussion to explore the knowledge of, attitude towards and practices of traditional mental health practitioners in Gombe, Nigeria. Results: All the
participants were married Muslims, aged between 39 and 53 years (mean age of 47 years). They attributed the causes of mental illness to Aljannu (evil spirit/demons), febrile illness and
disorientation. Sleep deprivation and “increased power of the blood” were the mechanisms for the causation of mental illness. Conclusion: Traditional healers in Gombe treat most of the
patients with mental illness, despite their poor knowledge of the causes and principles of treatment of mental disorders. This calls for increased public awareness of mental illness

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  HISTOLOGICAL OUTCOME OF BIRADS 5 BREAST LESIONS IN MAIDUGURI, NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA  

MUSTAPHA Z, ABUBAKAR A, MODU AA, PINDIGA UH, OKEDAYO M, ANNONGU IT

Background: BIRADS 5 breast lesions are greater than 95% suggestive of malignancy according to the ACR-BIRADS lexicon. Objectives: To review histological outcome, positive predictive values, and specificity of BIRADS category 5 breast lesions. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed all the demographic and histopathologic results of patients with BIRADS 5 breast lesions diagnosed in university of Maiduguri teaching hospital, North Eastern Nigeria over a period of one year with their 2 year follow-up mammogram. Results: Twenty three patients, aged 17 – 60 years, with mean age of 40+ 10.1 years were diagnosed with BIRADS 5 breast lesion during the study period. The lesions were bilateral in one (4.3 %), on the right side in 9 (39.1 %) and on the left side in 13 (56.5%) patients. Nineteen (82.6%) had malignant lesions, with invasive ductal carcinoma being the commonest malignancy (69.6%) and fibroadenosis was the commonest benign lesion 2 (8.7 %). The specificity and Positive Predictive Value were 50% and 82.6% respectively. Conclusion: The cancer rate in our study is about 82.6 % which is lower than the BIRADS lexicon of 95%, therefore we recommend a detailed verification of the BIRADs categorisation in our environment.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  USEFULNESS OF NITRITE TEST IN SCREENING FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA  

YAUBA MS, AIKHIONBARE HA, OGUNRINDE GO, BUGAJE MA

Background: Screening for urinary tract infection (UTI) among children with SCA can lead to early detection of UTI in childhood. This may necessitate further evaluation and early effective interventions with reduction in the number of individuals who develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of nitrite test in screening for UTI in children with SCA. Methods: Two hundred and seventy two children with SCA both in steady state and in crisis (anaemic and vaso-oclusive), aged 6 months to 15 years were screened for significant bacteriuria. The study was conducted over a period of 8 months (February to September, 2012). Urine samples were aseptically collected and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24 hours. The study was conducted in the paediatric medical ward, emergency paediatric unit and institute of child health, Banzazzau all of the Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. Children whose urine samples yielded =105cfu/ ml of urine on two consecutive cultures were regarded as having significant bacteriuria. Results: Bacterial isolates were detected in 22 (8.1%) of the 272 subjects with SCA. Of the 272 children with SCA, 66 (24.3) had positive nitrite test. The nitrite test has the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of 68.2%, 79.6% and 22.7% and 96.6% respectively. Conclusion: Nitrite test is not a useful screening tool for the diagnosis of UTI in SCA children..

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  AN APPRAISAL OF MALE MAMMOGRAPHY IN MAIDUGURI, NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA  

MUSTAPHA Z , MINOZA K , OKEDAYO M , ABBA ALI A , NGGADA HA , KYARI M

Background: Male breast diseases are uncommon and male breast cancer is rare, constituting about 1% of breast cancers seen worldwide. Previous studies have shown that gynecomastia and carcinoma are the commonest conditions affecting the male breast, with increasing incidence of both in recent years. Imaging studies of male breast diseases constitute only about 1% of overall breast imaging in most centres. Objectives: To determine and document the pattern of male breast diseases seen in the mammography unit of Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Methods: A retrospective study of all male patients with complaints of breast swelling referred for imaging at the department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital over a six year period from September 2007 to December 2013. The medical records, imaging and biopsy results were reviewed. Results: Ten male patients were referred for breast imaging, ranging in age from 14 to 58 years with mean age of 31.3 + 13 years. Nine (90%) had gynecomastia, of which five were histologically-proven, and one had acute mastitis. Carcinoma was not diagnosed in any of these patients. The left breast was affected in 80% of cases. Conclusion: Gynecomastia is the commonest male breast lesion in our environment. Awareness of the usefulness of imaging studies of male breast lesions needs to be encouraged..

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CASE REPORT


 
  CUTANEOUS BRONCHOGENIC CYST: A RARE PRESENTATION AS ANTERIOR CHEST WALL CYSTIC MASS  

PINDIGA UH, ABDULLAHI YM, 1ADOGU IO, SULEIMAN IE

SUMMARY:Bronchogenic cysts are uncommon and occur along the trachea-bronchial tree, lungs and mediastinum and even more uncommon in the skin tracheo-bronchial tree especially the anterior chest wall. It is a congenital abnormality that arises as a result of abnormal budding along the foregut in early embryogenesis. The diagnosis is usually missed clinically and majority of the cases are histologically diagnosed. The diagnosis in our case was histologically made and revealed a fibromuscular cyst wall lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with few goblet cells and sub-epithelial mucinous glands. We report a case of cutaneous bronchogenic cyst that occurred in the skin of the anterior chest wall over the manibrium sterni.

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CASE REPORT


 
  PENILE ECTOPIC TESTIS: A CASE REPORT  

IBRAHIM AG, ALIYU S, ADAMU S, SALIM MU

SUMMARY Cryptoorchidism or undescended testis is the most common congenital genitourinary disorder in boys. The true undescended testis has stopped along the path way of normal descent, while ectopic testis is in an aberrant location, such as the base of the penis, superficial inguinal pouch, medial aspect of the upper thigh, or the contra lateral scrotal sac. The undescended or ectopic are both referred to as maldescended testis. We report a case of a 30 months old child with ectopic right testis at the dorsum of the base of the penis who was managed by orchidopexy

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Written by Administrator On Sunday, 24 March 2013 17:23

PROF. BALA MOHAMMED AUDU

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, BORNO MEDICAL JOURNAL

DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL P.M.B
1414 MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
TEL:08035129840
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  


DR ALIYU M. KODIYA

ASSISTANT EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, BORNO MEDICAL JOURNAL

UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL P.M.B
1414 MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
TEL:08036289875
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

NMA BORNO STATE CHAPTER

Chairman: Dr. Baba Shehu Mohammed


Vice Chairman: Dr. Mohammed Kabir Ahmed

Secretary: Dr. Kumshe Mohammed Abba


Assistant Secretary: Dr. Abubakar Kaka Sanda


Treasurer: Dr. Musa Abbas Waziri


Financial Secretary: Dr. Yakubu M. El-Yakub


PRO: Dr. Abdulhakeem M. Ngulde


Ex-Officio I: Dr. Mala B. Sandabe


Ex-Officio II: Dr. Babagana K. Machina

MDCAN UMTH

Chairman: Dr Aliyu M. Kodiya

Vice-Chairman: Dr Adamu S. Abubakar

Secretary: Dr Ibrahim M. Sanusi

Assist Secretary: Dr Hassan Dogo

Treasurer: Dr Yusuf B. Ngamdu

Publicity Secretary: Dr Abubakar A. Kullima

Ex-Officio I: Dr Abubakar A. Alhaji

Ex-Officio II:Dr U. M. Tela

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. BM Audu

 

. . .