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Archive 2007 - No 1

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January - June 2007
Volume 4 | Issue 1

This journal has been online since Saturday, April 05, 2013

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  HOW USEFUL IS SHOCK INDEX IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RUPTURED ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

Geidam AD, Audu BM, Mairiga AG

Correspondence to: Dr Ado D Geidam Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, PMB 1414 Maiduguri, Nigeria Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Objective: To determine the usefulness of shock index in the management of ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Method: A retrospective review of cases of ruptured ectopic pregnancy at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital over a 10-year period (January, 1995 to December, 2004) was carried out. Result: During the study period there were 15, 120 deliveries and 136 cases of ruptured ectopic pregnancies, a prevalence of 0.9%. The mean age of the study population was 27.7±4.8 and the mean parity was 2.2±2.3.Majority of the patients (77.8%) had systolic blood pressure above 90mmhg but the diastolic blood pressure was =60mmhg in 50.4% of the patients. The shock index was >0.70 in 92.3% of the cases and the packed cell volume <30% in 60.7%. In 60.7% of the cases the amount of haemoperitoneum found at laparatomy was >1000mls. Majority of the patients (64.1%) had blood transfusion. The preoperative packed cell volume (PCV) had the strongest correlation with the amount of haemoperitoneum found at laparatomy (r= -0.648, p=0.000), followed by the shock index (r= 0.391, p=0.000). Only PCV <30% (P=0.000) and Shock index >0.70 (P=0.026) were significant predictors of haemoperitoneum above 1000ml. Conclusion: The shock index proved to be useful in the.

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  PSEUDO PHAKIC VISUAL ACUITY AFTER EXTRA CAPSULAR CATARACT EXTRACTION WITH POSTERIOR CHAMBER INTRA OCULAR LENS IMPLANTATION

ABDU L.
Correspondence to: Dr Lawan Abdu MBBS, MSc CEH, FWACS, FMCOphth Department of Ophthalmology Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Background: Manual (non phaco) extra capsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intra ocular lens (ECCE + PCIOL) was commenced in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano in the year 2001. Objectives: Firstly to evaluate the pseudo phakic visual acuity and determine the proportion of patients who attained normal vision (6/6 to 6/18) after surgery. Secondly, to determine if there is a statistically significant difference in normal visual outcome between +19 and +21 diopter sphere (the two available powers of) PCIOL. Patients and methods: The theater register was used to extract names and hospital numbers with type of cataract surgery done on patients from 2001 to 2004. The following categories of patients were excluded; those with associated glaucoma, presence of corneal opacity, traumatic cataracts, secondary cataracts, and patients younger than 40 years. One hundred eyes of 100 patients with age related cataracts, with normal intra ocular pressure, briskly reacting pupils, and accurate four quadrant light projection were selected using simple random number sampling. All patients had manual (non phaco) ECCE. Information extracted from the patients records included age, sex, and visual acuity at presentation and after surgery at 3 months follow up. Visual acuity was measured with either Snellen's or, Illiterate “E” charts at 6 meters. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon. Results: There were 295 patients who had ECCE+PCIOL. Fifty three patients were excluded due to co existing glaucoma, corneal opacity, anterior chamber IOL and evidence of previous eye trauma. One hundred eyes of 100 patients were selected by simple random sampling from the remaining 242 patients. There were 68 males and 32 females (M: F= 2:1). The patients age ranged between 40 and 80 years, 55% were between the ages of 50 to 60 years. Fifty three eyes had PCIOL +19 diopter sphere (DS) power and 47 had PCIOL +21 DS. Before surgery 15% of the eyes were severely visually impaired (SVI) and 85% were blind. Forty eight percent had normal vision after surgery and this improved to 69% with refraction. Twenty seven percent had post operative vision of less than 6/18 to 6/60. Two eyes remained blind after surgery due to chorioretinal scar involving the macular of the operated eye. The second patient had hypertensive retinal exudates (bilateral, with macular involvement in the operated eye). Two eyes were SVI from persistent pseudo phakic macular edema with vitreous degeneration in both eyes of one of the patient. Normal corrected visual outcome was observed in 37% and 32% of patients with +19DS and +21DS PCIOL, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in normal visual outcome between PCIOL of +19 and +21 DS using X-squared test. (X2=2.6, p<0.05).

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  REVIEW OF PAPANICOLAOU SMEARS IN MAIDUGURI -A 15-YEAR STUDY  

*Bukar M **Mayun AA **Musa AB

Correspondence to: Dr Mohammed Bukar Department of obstetrics and gynaecology University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital P.M.B 1414 Maiduguri Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Mortality from cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in developing countries. Organized cytological screening in developed countries has reduced significantly deaths related to cervical cancer. Opportunistic screenings offered in most parts of the developing world hardly cater for those at high risk. Objective: To review Pap smears in Maiduguri and compare our findings with other studies Methodology: A 15 year cytological review of 2082 Papanicolau smear for cervical cytology was carried out from January 1993 to December 2007 Results: Of the 2082 cervical cytology smears reviewed, 755(36.3%) were normal, 840(40.3%) showed inflammatory changes, while 132(6.3%) revealed infective agents. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was seen in 162 (7.8%) of cases while invasive cancer was suspected in 13(0.6%). All were subsequently confirmed by histology. One hundred and sixty six (7.9%) of the smears were unsatisfactory. Conclusion: cytological screening for cervical cancer is low in Maiduguri and efforts need to be made to increase the coverage which could subsequently lead to reduction in cervical cancer related deaths..

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  ERYTHROCYTE CHANGES IN NORMAL PREGNANCY IN MAIDUGURI, NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA  

Tukur MA* Chama C** Enyikwola O*

Correspondence to: Dr (Mrs) M. A. Tukur Department of Human Physiology University of Maiduguri PMB 1069 Maiduguri Borno State.

Background: There is paucity of data in respect of full blood count, which include the PCV, Hb, RBC in pregnant women in Maiduguri North- Eastern region of Nigeria. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Ante-natal Clinic of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The control group was constituted by women from the family planning clinic who had weaned their babies. Blood samples were taken from 200 pregnant women and 150 nonpregnant controls. Results: Eight of the pregnant women were in 1st trimester, 119 in 2nd trimester and 73 in 3rd trimester. The mean ± SD of Hb, PCV, and RBC, were: Hb 8.5±2.2 g\dl, 7.9 ±1.7g\dl 8.2 ± 1.7 g\dl, PCV: 31.8 ± 5.8%, 28.6 ± 3.6%, 28.7 ± 4.9%, RBC: 4.1±1.1 x 1012\L, 4.0 ±0.9 x 1012\L, 3.9±1.9 x 1012\L for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. The non-pregnant women had Hb, PCV, and RBC, of: 11.0 ± 1.34 g\dl, 34.0 ± 3.63%, 4.2 ± 0.58 x1012 \L. There was a significant fall in Hb PCV and RBC count in pregnancy (P<0.05). The MCV in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters were 82.3 ± 18.8 fl, 75.6 ±18.2 fl, and 79.2 ±17.4 fl, respectively. The MCHC in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters were 26.2 ± 5.1 g\dl, 27.9 ± 5.5 g\dl and 28.2 ±5.6 g\dl, respectively. The MCH in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters were 22.0 ±7.4, 21.0 ±5.3 pg, and 22.0 ±6.2 pg, respectively. The corresponding values for the non-pregnant women were: MCV 81.4 ± 10.52 fl, MCHC 32.5 ± 2.4 g\dl and MCH 26.3 ± 2.87pg. The MCV, MCHC and MCH were found to be significantly lower in pregnant than in the non-pregnant women (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding showed that there is a significant fall in Hb, PCV, and RBC in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to determine the normal pregnancy values for our population.

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  THE RESISTANCE PROFILE OF SOME UROPATHOGENS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL FOR UROLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS  

*Zailani SB *Gadzama GB +Abba AM **Onipede AO **Aboderin AO.
Correspondence to: Dr. SB Zailani Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology College of Medical Sciences University of Maiduguri. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common source of morbidity and mortality in all age groups in both sexes. Areas of concern in the treatment of UTI include the emergence of drug resistant uropathogens. Hence, the selection of drug resistant pathogens in both community acquired and nosocomial infections are of major concern world-wide. Objective: This retrospective study was aimed at determining the sensitivity profile of some uropathogens to antibiotics in urological patients attending Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital located in Southwestern part of Nigeria. Method: The microscopy, culture and sensitivity results of unselected mid stream urine specimens totaling 1015 received by the medical microbiology laboratory in the year 2000 were reviewed. Of these, 666 had all the information required for the study. Results: The total number of isolates in this study was 430(64.6%) out of which Gram-negative bacilli accounted for 40.5 % . The largest of this group being Klebsiella 13.7%, others were Pseudomonas 11.1% and E.coli 8.3%. Gram positive isolates represented 11.6% of organisms cultured. S. aureus 9%, being predominant. C. albicans made up 0.9 Conclusion: There was a generally high level of resistance of isolates to beta lactams, macrolides, and amino glycoside antibiotics compared to the third generation cephalosporins and quinolone antibiotics. The paper also underscores the importance of filling out request forms properly.

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Written by Administrator On Sunday, 24 March 2013 17:23

PROF. BALA MOHAMMED AUDU

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, BORNO MEDICAL JOURNAL

DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL P.M.B
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DR ALIYU M. KODIYA

ASSISTANT EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, BORNO MEDICAL JOURNAL

UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL P.M.B
1414 MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
TEL:08036289875
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