January - June 2016
Volume 13 | Issue 1

This journal has been online since Saturday, April 05, 2013

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
 
  SERUM LIPID PROFILES AND ATHEROGENIC INDEX IN PREGNANT SAHEL GOATS: PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

DAUDA YAHI, NICHOLAS ADETAYO OJO, GIDEON DAUDA MSHELIA

Background: Goat meat is very popular and has a great demand all over Nigeria. However, the slaughter of pregnant goats in abattoirs and slaughter slabs for meat is becoming a serious
concern not only for future livestock population, but also for public health. Dyslipidaemia of pregnancy in meat animals may constitute threat to consumers in terms of cardiovascular risks.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentrations of serum lipids at different stages of gestation in Sahel goats and to evaluate the atherogenic capacity of the lipid profile. Materials and Methods: Serum lipids profiles and atherogenic indices in pregnant and nonpregnant Sahel goats were studied. Fourteen apparently healthy adult Sahel goats comprising 12 does with mean gestation length of 148.33 ± 1.52 days and 2 bucks were used for the study. They were managed in the University of Maiduguri livestock research farm on low fat diet. Sera samples were collected biweekly for 5 months and were used for the analysis of total Cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c). Atherogenic indices were calculated as base 10 log (TG/HDL-c). Results: Serum TG and VLDL-c concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.05) in pregnant does compared to non-pregnant. HDL-c and LDL-c concentrations did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) between the two groups. Atherogenic indices increased progressively with advancing pregnancy compared to non-pregnant. Conclusion: It was concluded that atherogenic capacity of the lipid profile in pregnant Sahel goats is high and therefore consumption of meat from pregnant animals has high potential for atherogenic risk. Routine antemortem inspection should be conducted at abattoirs to identify pregnant animals for restriction against slaughter. Legislation prohibiting the slaughter of pregnant animals should be enforced

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 

PREVALENCE AND OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY AMONG ELDERLY PRIMIGRAVIDA IN AMINU KANO TEACHING HOSPITAL, KANO: A 5 YEAR REVIEW

IBRAHIM SA, JABBO MA, ATTAH AR, GARBA ID, MUHAMMAD Z.

Background: As women increasingly delay child bearing, the proportion of women having their first delivery at ''advanced maternal age'' is expected to rise. These elderly primigravidae have traditionally been considered to be at increased risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes compared to their younger counterparts, because of associated pregnancy and labour complications. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of elderly primigravidae and compare their pregnancy outcome with that of younger primigravidae in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective case control study comparing the pregnancy outcome of primigravid mothers aged 35 years and above (elderly primigravidae) with those of younger primigravidae aged 20-25 years, who delivered at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013. Results: There were 18,452 deliveries during the period under review, out of which 295 were primigravidae aged 35 years or above giving a prevalence of 1.6%. There was statistically significant higher preterm delivery rate ( X2= 10.30, P= 0.001) and caesarean delivery rate (X2= 12.15, P= 0.0001) among the elderly primigravidae compared to younger primigravidae. The elderly primigravidae were more prone to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (X2=23.96, P=0.0001) and diabetes (X2=4.689, P=0.030) compared to the younger primigravidae. The prevalence of antepartum haemorrhage (X2=6.434, P=0.011) and uterine fibroids (X2=5.549, P=0.019) were also statistically significant among the elderly primigravidae compared to the younger primigravidae. There was no significant difference in the other maternal and foetal outcome measures. Conclusion: The prevalence of elderly primigravidae in this study was 1.6%. The prevalence of obstetric complications such as preterm delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, uterine fibroids coexisting with pregnancy and medical conditions like hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and diabetes mellitus are higher among elderly primigravidae compared to younger primigravidae. The elderly primigravidae were also more liable to have caesarean deliveries than the younger primigravidae. However there was no difference in the fetal outcome in the two groups.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  TRADITIONAL UVULECTOMY AMONG THE NEONATES: EXPERIENCE IN A NIGERIAN TERTIARY HEALTH INSTITUTION  
ABDULLAHI M, AMUTTA SB.

Background: Traditional uvulectomy is widely practiced in some African countries with children more vulnerable to such practices, which may be associated with life threatening complications. Objectives: To determine the age at the time of the procedure, reasons and complication(s) following traditional uvulectomy. Materials And Methods: Retrospective study of hospitalized neonates presenting as emergencies following traditional uvulectomy to the accident and emergency department of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria, from June, 2004 to May, 2015. Results: A total of 21 cases were reviewed. Twelve(57.1%) males and 9(42.9%) were females: ratio of 1.3:1. The age ranged from 1 to 21 days with the mean age of 8.8 days. Majority 11(52.4%) of the thtraditional uvulectomies were performed before the 7 day of life. The mean duration before hospitalization was 8.4 hours. Post-uvulectomy haemorrhage 18(85.7%) was the most common complication and this was followed by septicaemia 3 (14.3%) with 2(9.5%) mortalities from the septicaemia. All the patients were anaemic. Prevention of sore throat 12(57.1%) was the main reason for traditional uvulectomy. Sixteen (76.2%) patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Neonatal traditional uvulectomy was mostly done in the first week of life, prevention of sore throat was the common intent and complicated with post-uvulectomy bleeding and septicaemia. Health institutions have a role to play in public health education on the harmful effects of traditional uvulectomy.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  SERUM ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS IN ZARIA, NORTH WEST NIGERIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY  

ABDULLAHI MOHAMMED, MOHAMMED MANU.

Background: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that is exclusively produced by adipocytes with potent insulin-sensitizing property. It has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus, but its role is not clear; Findings from studies done across different ethnic groups are often inconsistent. Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare maternal serum adiponectin levels between Nigerian pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus. Materials And Methods: A cross sectional analytical study including one hundred and sixty nine pregnant women, 85 with gestational diabetes mellitus and 84 with normal gestation, who were evaluated between 24-28 weeks gestation. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was made according to the WHO diagnostic criteria. Maternal serum level of adiponectin was measured and compared between pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and the controls. Results: Mean maternal serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus than in the controls (8.1 ± 1.6 vs. 10.1 ± 2.4 µg/ml, p< 0.05). When 2 2 subjects in the study groups were further categorized in to BMI < 25kg/m and BMI 25 kg/m , maternal serum adiponectin level remained significantly lower in the normal weight pregnant women with gestational diabetes compared to their BMI-matched controls (8.4 ± 1.7 vs. 11.4 ± 2.1 2µg/ml, p< 0.05). Among the overweight pregnant women (BMI 25 kg/m) on the other hand, there was no difference in maternal serum adiponectin level between pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and the normal controls (7.8 ± 1.5 vs. 8.0 ± 1.1µg/ml, p> 0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that normal weight Nigerian pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus in this study have lower serum adiponectin level compared to the normal weight pregnant women with normal gestation

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE


 
  SELF-REPORTED HEARING-RELATED COMPLAINTS AMONG DENTAL PROFESSIONALS: A QUESTIONNAIRE-BASED SURVEY  

ABDULAZEEZ AHMED

Background: As a result of workplace noise, dental personnel are potentially predisposed to auditory and non-auditory effects of noise which may expose hidden or imminent hearing impairment. There is the need to capture these self-reported hearing and hearing-related complaints using well designed questionnaires as a prelude to formal audiometric tests. Materials And Methods: This was a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire study conducted between the periods April to August 2015. Participants were given questionnaires to fill and return which captured socio-demographic data and exposure to noise at workplace and symptoms experienced. Upon return of the questionnaire, each questionnaire was examined to ensure they were properly filled with signed consent. All data and findings were evaluated anonymously. Results: One hundred and thirty eight questionnaires were returned giving 86% response rate, 35(25.4%) reported hearing impairment. Eighteen (13.0%) respondents have experienced tinnitus, while 20 (14.5%) of the respondents experienced Hyperacusis, another 53(38.4%) of the respondents also have difficulty hearing in places with competing noise. Stress and sleep disturbance were also common complains. Conclusion: The presence of especially tinnitus, hyperacusis, impaired hearing in areas with competing sounds are all symptoms indicative of imminent hearing impairment that could be used to predict undetected hearing losses among dental personnel.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE


 
  TESTICULAR AND PARATESTICULAR NON- NEOPLASTIC LESIONS IN UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL: A 10-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW  

ABBA K,TAHIR MB, DOGO HM , NGGADA HA

Objectives: The present study is undertaken to describe the spectrum of histopathological features and age distribution of non-neoplastic testicular and paratesticular lesions in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH). Materials and methods: A retrospective descriptive study of 70 testicular and paratesticular nonneoplastic lesions was conducted over a period of 10 years; between January-2005 and December2014 in the Department of Histopathology, UMTH. Histopathological examination was done after routine processing and staining with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Special stain (Ziehl-Neelsen stain) was done to confirm the presence of acid fast bacilli in cases of tuberculous epididymoorchitis. Results: There were of which
(24.3%) followed by testicular torsion and infarction (14.3%). The youngest patient was 2 years old and the oldest was 80 years of age. The highest incidence occurred in the age range of 30 – 59 years with a total of 25 cases representing 35.7%. The lowest incidence was observed in the elderly (= 60 years) with a total of 21 cases (30%). Conclusion: This study shows that inflammatory disorders are the predominant causes of the testicular and paratesticular non-neoplastic lesions capable of interfering with fertility and mimicking malignancy. There is also the need to emphasise the necessity of proper evaluation and treatment of acute orchitis and microabscess to avoid unnecessary orchidectomy.
70 cases of non-neoplastic testicular and paratesticular lesions the majority were inflammatory disorders accounting for 53 cases (75.7%). They included acute orchitis (4.3%), tuberculosis (12.9%), schistosomiasis (8.6%), hydrocoele (24.3%), chronic orchitis (10.0%), epididymal cyst (11.4%) and tumoral calcinosis (4.3%). Other categories of the lesions included congenital abnormalities (10.0%) and traumatic disorder (14.3%). Long-standing hydrocoele was the commonest lesion

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SHORT COMMUNICATION


 
  ROLE OF NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION SERVICE (NBTS) IN PROMOTING EMERGENCY OBSTETRICS CARE (EMOC)  
KULLIMA AA, KAGU MB, KAWUWA MB, BABA ZANNAH ALI, USMAN HA, BAKO BG

Background: Obstetrics haemorrhage is one of the leading cause of maternal mortality in our settings, this was compounded by the non availability to safe blood in situation of need. Hence the prompt access and availability of blood can avert this preventable cause of maternal death. Objectives: to highlight the benefits of effective collaboration with NBTS in ensuring prompt availability of blood for emergency obstetric services requiring blood for transfusion. Material And Method: All obstetrics cases requiring blood transfusion in FMC Nguru from 1st stJanuary 2006 – 31 December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Trends and pattern of the st strequest and source of blood were looked at within the two periods (from 1 January 2006 – 31 st stDecember 2008 and 1 January 2009 – 31 December 2011). Records of 1634 obstetric patients requiring blood transfusion or received blood transfusion in the maternity units were retrieved from the medical records, maternity ward record and blood bank. Information pertaining to their age, parity, indication for the transfusion or requests and source of blood was obtained for analysis. Data was analysed using simple percentage. st st Results: Between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2008 only 513 (56%) of the units requested st st907 units of blood were supplied, while between 1 January 2009 and 1 December 2011 1367 ( 87%) of the 1567 units of blood requested were supplied. Within the earlier study period the only available source were from willing relatives and commercial blood donors, however between 2009 and 2011 more than 2/3 (64.2%) were supplied from the north east zonal NBTS office in Maiduguri. In 2006 through 2008, donation from relatives and commercial donors accounted for 53.22% and 46.78% respectively, but in 2009 and 2011 donation from relatives and commercial donors were recorded as 23.9% and 11.6% respectively. The commonest indication for the requests were anaemia, obstetrics haemorrhage (PPH, APH) and emergency C/S. Conclusion: Ready available source of blood will significantly improve timely availability of blood in our setting. There is the need to encourage this collaboration in other regions to ensure prompt availability of blood to attend to emergencies requiring blood transfusion.

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SHORT COMMUNICATION


 
  BONE MARROW ASPIRATION (BMA) IN ZARIA: A THREE-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW  

AWWALU S, HASSAN A, DOGARA LG, MUSA AU, WAZIRI AD, BABADOKO AA

Background: BMA is a clinical procedure that exploits microscopy and lends itself to specialized biochemical and molecular assays for diagnosis, staging, prognostication and determining choice of therapy. Eligibility for BMA is determined following review of a patient's history, physical examination findings, Complete Blood Count and other relevant investigations. Bone marrow aspirates may be obtained from different sites of the body such as iliac crest, sternum etc. This study was to determine some patient characteristics, sites, indications and outcomes of all BMAs done between January 2002 and December 2004. It is hoped that this study will help haematologists and other physicians to understand the utility of BMA and some of its limitations. Material And Methods: It was a three-year retrospective, analytic review of all BMAs done in the stDepartment of Haematology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria. Records from 1 stJanuary 2002 to 31 of December 2004 were retrieved, collated and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of One hundred and thirty five (135) BMAs were done in the period under review. There was a male preponderance 77 (57.00%) with females constituting 58 (43.00%). The mean age was 31.78±20.76 years with a mode of 45 years. The minimum and maximum ages were 1 and 78 years respectively. The commonest site for BMA was the RPSIS 97(71.9%). Anaemia was the commonest indication for BMA 56(41.5%) followed by Splenomegaly 15(11.1%) and Lymphadenopathy 14(10.4%).The commonest diagnosis was combined deficiency anaemia 21(15.6%) followed by Megaloblastic anaemia 19(14.1%). Whereas 9(6.7%) were inconclusive, 14(10.4%) were normal. The complication rate was 0% and lymphadenopathy was the commonest indication that turned up with a normal BMA 5/14 (35.7%) . Conclusion: BMA is important in the evaluation of several conditions. However, there is a need to ensure proper consultation to ensure only patients that require BMA do so due to its invasive nature.

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CASE REPORT


 
  USE OF MAUERMAYER STONE PUNCH TO TREAT POSTERIOR URETHRAL DIVERTICULA CALCULUS IN A PATIENT WITH MULTIPLE CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF URINARY TRACT  
ABUBAKAR ABDULKADIR

Background: Posterior urethral diverticulum calculus (PUD-C) is a rare urethral lesion that can pose as a diagnostic dilemma and in instances laborious to treat. Objectives: To report a rare case of posterior urethral diverticulum calculus (PUD-C) treated by the use of Mauermayer stone punch in a patient with double ureter , mal-development of the prostate and chronic viral hepatitis. Case: A 37year old male, who presented with a year history of bothersome Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with episodes of purulent urethral discharge. His posterior urethral diverticulum calculus (PUD-C) was confirmed at urethrocystoscopy alongside maldeveloped prostate, hanging verumontanum, urinary bladder trabeculations, and sacculations. He had urethrolitholapaxy using Mauermayer stone punch with a concurrent alleviation of the LUTS. Conclusion: The pertinent publications on the clinical features, treatment, and the outcome of PUDC were reviewed. Utilization of Mauermayer stone punch for PUDC urethrolitholapaxy is a novel treatment technique. It, however, alleviated the bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms and granted a satisfactory outcome in the index patient.

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CASE REPORT


 
  SPIGELIAN HERNIA: EXPERIENCE OF HOPITAL DE LA RENAISSANCE OF NDJAMENA (CHAD)  
KAIMBA BM, EDZIMBI AL, MOIFO B, PIERRE H.

Background: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the semilunaris linea and is known as “hernias through the conjoint tendon”. The symptoms of Spigelian hernia are usually non-specific. CT scanning is considered the most reliable technique for diagnosis .These hernias require surgical treatment. Case: A case of Spigelian hernia was diagnosed in the patient of 56-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain associated with a reducible mass in the right iliac fossa. CT scan confirmed the diagnosis. We had performed successfully surgical treatment to repair the hernia defect. The recovery was uneventful.

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CASE REPORT


 
  MASSIVE CHRONIC BILATERAL GYNECOMASTIA IN A MIDDLE AGED MAN: A CASE REPORT  
ZAINAB MUSTAPHA, MOHAMMED A. SUWAID, MAIMUNA A. HALLIRU, SIRAJO D. YAKUBU AND ANAS ISMAIL

Gynecomastia is defined as enlargement of the male breast and derives its origin from 2 Greek words- 'gyne' and 'mastos' which mean "woman's" "breast". Gynecomastia is a clinical condition and often has three radiological patterns which are nodular, dendritic and diffuse glandular patterns. We report a case of a 42 year old man of Hausa-Fulani descent with massive bilateral breast enlargement of multifactorial origin. Investigations done included thyroid function test, liver function test and additional basic blood workup. A mammogram was done, which was followed by breasts ultrasound. Additional radiological imaging included abdominal and testicular sonograms and diagnosis of massive bilateral gynecomastia was made. Anti-psychotics are a documented cause of gynecomastia while thyroid dysfunction is an often overlooked etiology of male breast enlargement. Medical treatment may address the underlying pathology in some cases; however, surgical reconstruction must be considered in severe, chronic cases as it addresses the physical deformity which is a significant cause of depression in these patients. The role of radiology in excluding the causes of gynecomastia cannot be overemphasized and is pertinent in the management of this condition.

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CASE REPORT


 
  GIANT CELL TUMOUR OF THE FIRST METACARPAL - REVIEW OF LITERATURE  
LAWAL SULEIMAN, CHOM NUHU DUNG1, IGASHI JOSEPH BAKO, DAHIRU ISMAIL LAWAL IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD ZARIA

A case of giant cell tumour of the first metacarpal has been presented, its radiological features discussed and literature reviewed

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CASE REPORT


 
  ELLIS-van CREVELD SYNDROME IN A NIGERIAN WOMAN: A CASE STUDY  
AHMADU MS, TALLE MA, AHIDJO A, TAHIR AA

Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome or chondroectodermal dysplasia is a rare, autosomal recessive thdisorder that was first described by Ellis and van Creveld in the mid-20 century.The syndrome is characterized by a tetrad of chondrodystrophy, post axial polydactyly, and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, mostly involving teeth and nails and a high frequency of congenital cardiac anomalies, most frequently a common atrium.There has been no documented case report of EVC syndrome from Nigeria in the literature. We, therefore, present a 30 year-old Nigerian woman who presented to our hospital with features consistent with this rare syndrome.

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CASE REPORT


 
  CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKAEMIA PRESENTING WITH MASSIVE ASCITES: A CASE REPORT  
YUGUDA SALEH, GIREI I. AHMED, SAIDU ABUBAKAR, LAWAN I. ALIYU

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder of the pluripotential stem cell characterized by anaemia, extreme blood granulocytosis and granulocytic immaturity, basophilia, often thrombocytosis, and splenomegaly.Only a few cases of extramedullary manifestation have so far been reported in CML. Wepresent a case of CML in accelerated phase with massive ascites who responded well to combination chemotherapy and oral hydroxyurea.

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July - December 2014
Volume 11 | Issue 2

Online since Saturday, April 05, 2013

PDF access
This Journal allows immediate access to content in HTML + PDF for both current and archived editions.

Mobile access
Full text of the articles can be accessed via our android application and mobile site free of charge.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Download Full Journal in PDF

 

ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
 
  DISTRIBUTION OF ABO, Rh D BLOOD GROUPS AND HAEMOGLOBIN PHENOTYPES AMONG ANTENATAL CLINIC ATTENDEES IN FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE NGURU, NIGERIA

1BABADOKO AA, TAKAI IU, KAWUWA MB

Background: Blood groups antigens and haemoglobin genotypes are genetically controlled and are specific to an individual. Blood groups remain unchanged throughout life and are important to avoid fatal blood transfusion reactions. Haemoglobin phenotypes are necessary for the laboratory detection of most common clinically important haemoglobin variants as it determines the transfusion demand which is necessary for setting up and planning of a blood transfusion unit. Objectives: To determine the distribution of ABO, Rh D blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes in pregnant women attending antenatal care at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Nguru, Yobe state, North-Eastern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of 5,519 records of pregnant women who were sequentially booked in antenatal care clinic at the permanent site of FMC Nguru, over a 2 year period, from January 2009 to December 2010. The ABO and Rh D blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoretic pattern were obtained from the haematology antenatal record register and analyzed. Results: Overall, a total of 5474 and 5508 records were analyzed for ABO/Rh D blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoretic pattern respectively. The mean age of the study subjects was 24.6 ± 5.84 years and a mean packed cell volume of 32.6 ±4.51%. Blood group O was commonest accounting for 49.2% followed by blood group B (26.0%) and A (21.3%) while blood group AB had the lowest distribution of 3.5% (O>B>A>AB). Rhesus Rh D positivity (RhD/RhDd) rate was 95.4% while RhD negativity (Rhdd) accounted for 4.6%. Five haemoglobin phenotypes (electrophoretic pattern) were recorded in the order of HbAA (76.12%) > HbAS (23.4%) > HbAC (0.27%) > HbSS (0.16%) > HbSC (0.05%). HbAA and HbAS occurred more frequently than other haemoglobin variants. Conclusion: Although our study included only pregnant women, the finding of this study is consistent with the previously published data in Nigeria. This study will serve as a baseline data for FMC Nguru to determine and formulate an effective and efficient blood transfusion services amongst pregnant women and also it will serve as a guide for premarital counselling in this community.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 

DETERMINATION OF GROWTH HORMONE, TESTOSTERONE AND ESTRADIOL IN CORD BLOOD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL

GALI RM, UDOH AE, USORO CAO, CHAMA CM, BASSEY IE, MAMZA YP

Background: Cord blood provides data on problems of neonates including factors that may serve as indicators of future disorders. Objectives: To determine the values of growth hormone, testosterone and estradiol using cord blood. Methods: Cross-sectional study using Cord blood of babies born in the labour ward of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) Borno State, Nigeria. The samples were analyzed in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Chemical Pathology Unit, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for the analysis of growth hormone, testosterone and estradiol was used. Results: Two hundred and eighty nine babies comprising 152 (52.8%) males and 137 (47.2%) females cord blood were analyzed. Nineteen were preterm and 270 were full term babies. The mean serum levels of estradiol and testosterone in both male and female babies were similar (2.47±0.31ng/ml male, 2.54±0.29ng/ml female and 1.73±0.60ng/ml male, 1.62± 0.64ng/ml female) respectively. The mean serum level of growth hormone in male was higher than that of female but not statistically significant (50.92±34.42ng/ml male and 45.95±30.87ng/ml). Conclusion: Cord blood Growth Hormone, testosterone and estradiol of male and female babies do not differ significantly at birth.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  BARRIERS TO UTILIZATION OF EYE CARE SERVICES IN RURAL COMMUNITIES IN EDO STATE, NIGERIA  

EBEIGBE JA, OVENSERI-OGBOMO GO

Background: Visual impairment and blindness due to ocular diseases are significant public health problems in developing countries, including Nigeria. Evidence suggests that poor uptake
of available eye care services by potential beneficiaries is a major barrier to attaining universal access to eye care services. Objectives: To determine the factors that prevents utilization of eye care services in rural communities. Methods: This was a cross- sectional community based survey. Three rural communities in three different Local Government Areas- Obe, Evboneka and Orior of Edo State were selected by convenient sampling. One hundred subjects were selected by systematic random sampling from each of the three villages visited. This made a sample size of 300. There were 132 (44%) males and 168 (56%) females. The age range was between 40 to 75 years, with a mean age of 55.2 ± 2.1 years. Results: The barriers identified were felt need for eye care services (33.3%), cost of treatment (26.7%), the need for escort (8.3%). and social engagement/belief (8.3%). Sixty-eight per cent of the sample population had never had their eyes examined in a hospital before. Of the thirty-two per cent of those who had gone to the hospital for eye care services, 21% were females. This resulted in a statistically significant difference in gender utilization of eye care services ( p<0.0001). There was also a significant association between the level of education and health care seeking behaviour of the sample population (p = 0.008). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ignorance, poverty and gender are major barriers to utilization of eye care services by communities. Health promotion programmes need to incorporate community based health education and explore ways of making eye care services affordable in rural areas. Also, enlightenment programmes and workshops targeted at men should be carried out to educate and encourage better eye care seeking behaviour among them.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  TUBERCULIN SKIN TEST AND SERUM ALBUMIN AMONG SPUTUM SMEAR POSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA  

GWALABE SA, YUSUPH H, MUSTAPHA SK, IGE OM, GONI BW, BAKKI B, TAHIR A

Background:tuberculin, a Purified Protein Derivative (PPD), is introduced into intradermal tissues using a small-gauge needle. The amount of induration is measured in mm after 48-72 hours. In the setting of malnutrition, DTH responses are markedly depressed. 8 The significance of these effects depends on previous nutritional status of the individual, and the nature and duration of infection. 9 Malnutrition is observed frequently in patients with PTB 10 and it has a profound effect on cellular immune function. It is an important risk factor for TB, given that CMI is the key host defence against TB. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the intensity of Mantoux responses and serum albumin in HIV-negative sputum smear positive PTB patients in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  TRADITIONAL MENTAL HEALTH PRACTITIONERS IN GOMBE: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE  

YERIMA MM, WAKIL MA, IBRAHIM AW

Background: There are many studies on the knowledge of, attitude towards and practices of mental health workers towards mental illness in Nigeria. However, there are few studies on the knowledge of, attitude towards and practices of traditional mental health practitioners towards mental illness. Objectives: The present study investigated the knowledge of, attitude and practices of traditional mental health practitioners towards mental illness. Methods: We recruited four traditional mental health practitioners (in a traditional mental healing house) into
the study, and used focus-group discussion to explore the knowledge of, attitude towards and practices of traditional mental health practitioners in Gombe, Nigeria. Results: All the
participants were married Muslims, aged between 39 and 53 years (mean age of 47 years). They attributed the causes of mental illness to Aljannu (evil spirit/demons), febrile illness and
disorientation. Sleep deprivation and “increased power of the blood” were the mechanisms for the causation of mental illness. Conclusion: Traditional healers in Gombe treat most of the
patients with mental illness, despite their poor knowledge of the causes and principles of treatment of mental disorders. This calls for increased public awareness of mental illness

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  HISTOLOGICAL OUTCOME OF BIRADS 5 BREAST LESIONS IN MAIDUGURI, NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA  

MUSTAPHA Z, ABUBAKAR A, MODU AA, PINDIGA UH, OKEDAYO M, ANNONGU IT

Background: BIRADS 5 breast lesions are greater than 95% suggestive of malignancy according to the ACR-BIRADS lexicon. Objectives: To review histological outcome, positive predictive values, and specificity of BIRADS category 5 breast lesions. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed all the demographic and histopathologic results of patients with BIRADS 5 breast lesions diagnosed in university of Maiduguri teaching hospital, North Eastern Nigeria over a period of one year with their 2 year follow-up mammogram. Results: Twenty three patients, aged 17 – 60 years, with mean age of 40+ 10.1 years were diagnosed with BIRADS 5 breast lesion during the study period. The lesions were bilateral in one (4.3 %), on the right side in 9 (39.1 %) and on the left side in 13 (56.5%) patients. Nineteen (82.6%) had malignant lesions, with invasive ductal carcinoma being the commonest malignancy (69.6%) and fibroadenosis was the commonest benign lesion 2 (8.7 %). The specificity and Positive Predictive Value were 50% and 82.6% respectively. Conclusion: The cancer rate in our study is about 82.6 % which is lower than the BIRADS lexicon of 95%, therefore we recommend a detailed verification of the BIRADs categorisation in our environment.

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  USEFULNESS OF NITRITE TEST IN SCREENING FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA  

YAUBA MS, AIKHIONBARE HA, OGUNRINDE GO, BUGAJE MA

Background: Screening for urinary tract infection (UTI) among children with SCA can lead to early detection of UTI in childhood. This may necessitate further evaluation and early effective interventions with reduction in the number of individuals who develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of nitrite test in screening for UTI in children with SCA. Methods: Two hundred and seventy two children with SCA both in steady state and in crisis (anaemic and vaso-oclusive), aged 6 months to 15 years were screened for significant bacteriuria. The study was conducted over a period of 8 months (February to September, 2012). Urine samples were aseptically collected and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24 hours. The study was conducted in the paediatric medical ward, emergency paediatric unit and institute of child health, Banzazzau all of the Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. Children whose urine samples yielded =105cfu/ ml of urine on two consecutive cultures were regarded as having significant bacteriuria. Results: Bacterial isolates were detected in 22 (8.1%) of the 272 subjects with SCA. Of the 272 children with SCA, 66 (24.3) had positive nitrite test. The nitrite test has the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of 68.2%, 79.6% and 22.7% and 96.6% respectively. Conclusion: Nitrite test is not a useful screening tool for the diagnosis of UTI in SCA children..

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES


 
  AN APPRAISAL OF MALE MAMMOGRAPHY IN MAIDUGURI, NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA  

MUSTAPHA Z , MINOZA K , OKEDAYO M , ABBA ALI A , NGGADA HA , KYARI M

Background: Male breast diseases are uncommon and male breast cancer is rare, constituting about 1% of breast cancers seen worldwide. Previous studies have shown that gynecomastia and carcinoma are the commonest conditions affecting the male breast, with increasing incidence of both in recent years. Imaging studies of male breast diseases constitute only about 1% of overall breast imaging in most centres. Objectives: To determine and document the pattern of male breast diseases seen in the mammography unit of Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Methods: A retrospective study of all male patients with complaints of breast swelling referred for imaging at the department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital over a six year period from September 2007 to December 2013. The medical records, imaging and biopsy results were reviewed. Results: Ten male patients were referred for breast imaging, ranging in age from 14 to 58 years with mean age of 31.3 + 13 years. Nine (90%) had gynecomastia, of which five were histologically-proven, and one had acute mastitis. Carcinoma was not diagnosed in any of these patients. The left breast was affected in 80% of cases. Conclusion: Gynecomastia is the commonest male breast lesion in our environment. Awareness of the usefulness of imaging studies of male breast lesions needs to be encouraged..

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CASE REPORT


 
  CUTANEOUS BRONCHOGENIC CYST: A RARE PRESENTATION AS ANTERIOR CHEST WALL CYSTIC MASS  

PINDIGA UH, ABDULLAHI YM, 1ADOGU IO, SULEIMAN IE

SUMMARY:Bronchogenic cysts are uncommon and occur along the trachea-bronchial tree, lungs and mediastinum and even more uncommon in the skin tracheo-bronchial tree especially the anterior chest wall. It is a congenital abnormality that arises as a result of abnormal budding along the foregut in early embryogenesis. The diagnosis is usually missed clinically and majority of the cases are histologically diagnosed. The diagnosis in our case was histologically made and revealed a fibromuscular cyst wall lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with few goblet cells and sub-epithelial mucinous glands. We report a case of cutaneous bronchogenic cyst that occurred in the skin of the anterior chest wall over the manibrium sterni.

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CASE REPORT


 
  PENILE ECTOPIC TESTIS: A CASE REPORT  

IBRAHIM AG, ALIYU S, ADAMU S, SALIM MU

SUMMARY Cryptoorchidism or undescended testis is the most common congenital genitourinary disorder in boys. The true undescended testis has stopped along the path way of normal descent, while ectopic testis is in an aberrant location, such as the base of the penis, superficial inguinal pouch, medial aspect of the upper thigh, or the contra lateral scrotal sac. The undescended or ectopic are both referred to as maldescended testis. We report a case of a 30 months old child with ectopic right testis at the dorsum of the base of the penis who was managed by orchidopexy

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Abstract Background: With the increasing prevalence of hypertension, an increase in burden of diseases due to hypertensive changes in left ventricular (LV) geometry is eminent. Assessment of LV geometric pattern identifies hypertensive patients with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which LV geometric patterns were evaluated in treatment naïve adult hypertensive patients. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters were determined using standard protocols. Echocardiographic LV indices were obtained using American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) guidelines. Spot urine sample was collected for determination of urine albumin-creatinine ratio(ACR). Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 16 for windows and a p value of =0.05 considered significant.Results: One hundred and thirty six patients (made of 66 males and 70 females) with a mean of 44.82 (10.51) years were studied.Abnormal LV geometry was observed in 80.88%. Concentric remodeling was seen in 44.12%. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was present in 24.26% while 12.50% had eccentric LVH, giving an overall prevalence of 36.77% for LVH.LVH is commoner among the obese and those with stage II hypertension. Ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening(FS) were significantly lower in eccentric hypertrophy but did not differ in other geometric patterns. Systolic blood pressure, pulse rate and ACR independently predicts LVH.Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of abnormal LV geometry and LVH in newly presenting untreated hypertensive patients. Eccentric hypertrophy is associated with lower systolic function compared to other geometric patterns.

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Abstract Background : Water is a very essential constituent of life, and the availability of good quality water is an indispensable feature for preventing diseases and improving quality life.Objective: The study was conducted to ascertain the wholesomeness in terms of presence and concentration of heavy metals in sachet water sold in Gombe metropolis.Methodology: A total of 20 brands of sachet water were randomly selected from 25 brands sold in Gombe. These were obtained from water vendors in the markets and motor parks in Gombe town. Physico-chemical analysis was conducted on the collected water samples, and data analysed using SPSS 13.Results: The heavy metal concentration in sachet water studied revealed that, all samples were within World health organisation (WHO) standard. Iron concentration ranged from (0.00-0.29mg/l), Zinc and chromium ranged from 0.001-1.40 and 0.00-0.04mg/l respectively. Similarly concentration for lead, copper and magnesium were 0.00-0.04mg/l, 0.00-0.05mg/l and 2.00-3.40mg/l respectively. However, manganese and chloride concentration ranges from 0.00-0.06mg/l and 11.5-16.32mg/l. the colour, taste, odour and alkalinity were all within the standards of WHO.Conclusion: The physico-chemical parameters analyzed and the heavy metals concentration in the sachet water sampled in Gombe had values within the acceptable limits as prescribed by WHO standards for quality of drinking water. The study provides guidance to help water processors in collaboration with public health authorities to identify those chemicals that are likely to be present in water sold which may present potential public health risk on a long term exposure.

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Abstract Background: With the development of antibiotic therapy and modern blood-banking techniques, caesarean section has evolved into one of the safest and most commonly performed major operative procedures.Objective: To determine the caesarean section rate, its morbidity and mortality in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano.Study Design: A two-year descriptive study from 1st January2006 to 31st December 2007, in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital,Kano. All patients that were delivered by caesarean section were included.Results: There were 6,355 deliveries from 1st January 2006 to 31stDecember 2007, out of which 1,005 were by caesarean section,giving a caesarean section rate of 15.8%. Nine hundred and thirty eight (938) case notes were retrieved, out of which emergency caesarean sections were performed in 812 (86.6%) and elective caesarean sections in 126 (13.4%). Of the 938 patients, 434(46.3%) were booked at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano,314 (33.5%) were booked elsewhere and 190 (20.2%) were unbooked.The commonest indication was cephalo-pelvic disproportion/obstructed labour in 27.7% of the patients, thenprevious caesarean sections in 18.6%, hypertensive disorders in14.8% and ante partum haemorrhage in 11.1% of the patients.Three hundred and six (33.6%) of the patients had at least one complication. The common complications were postpartum anaemia (21.3%), prolonged hospital stay (9.4%) and postpartum haemorrhage (4.5%). The caesarean section related mortality rate was 1.1% or 1066/100,000; 80% of which occurred in unbooked patients, 60% occurred in patients with eclampsia, 20% inpatients with obstructed labour and the other 20% in patients with ante partum haemorrhage.Conclusion: Morbidity and mortality from caesarean section isstill high, due to the high number of unbooked patients and late referrals. Efforts should be made to educate our women about the importance of antenatal booking and early presentation in labour.Early referrals should be encouraged through continuing education programme for Doctors in private and government hospitals.

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Written by Administrator On Sunday, 24 March 2013 17:23

PROF. BALA MOHAMMED AUDU

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, BORNO MEDICAL JOURNAL

DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL P.M.B
1414 MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
TEL:08035129840
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DR ALIYU M. KODIYA

ASSISTANT EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, BORNO MEDICAL JOURNAL

UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL P.M.B
1414 MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
TEL:08036289875
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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